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Kathleen Jannaway 

The Movement for Compassionate Living - The Vegan Way 



Compassionate Living is about making connections between the way we live and 
the way that others suffer, between unnecessary industrial development and the 
destruction of the planet. It involves a commitment to work non-violently for 
change, promoting life-styles that are possible for all the world's people; sustainable 
within the resources of the planet, environmentally friendly and free from the 
exploitation of animals and of people. 

MCL publishes booklets, leaflets and a quarterly journal, New Leaves, with articles 
to inspire, inform and give practical help. MCL answers queries, runs stalls and has 
an annual meeting to gather guidance from members. All labour is voluntary. 

MCL Co-ordinator: Ireene-Sointu 

105 Cyfyng Road, Ystalyfera, Swansea SA9 2BT 
Leaflets & answers to queries sent in return for two stamps. 

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free of exploitation of people, animals and the environment. 


for an ecological vegan diet based on home grown foods. 


using acorns, chestnuts, buckwheat, carrots, quinnoa etc. 

More publications listed inside back cover. 

in the coming age of the tree 

Kathleen Jannaway 

April 1991 

Second enlarged edition 

Published March 1991 by 

Movement for Compassionate Living (MCL) 

Original typed by Richard Jannaway 
Prepared and laserset by ISI Publishing (020 8208 2853) 

This reprint Nov 2003, Dec 2004 & ongoing, 

with revisions and retyping where applicable, 

by Veggies at The Sumac Centre, 

245 Gladstone St, Nottingham NG7 6HX 

©Movement for Compassionate Living (MCL) 

105 Cyfyng Road, Ystalyfera, Swansea SA9 2BT 

ISBN 9517328 3 

Reprinted by MCL 

May 1994 

August 1994 

February 1996 

July 1996 
September 1996 
November 1996 
November 2003 


The Challenge 


The Second Population Explosion 


Tree Products 


Trees and the Environment 


Suffering Animals and People 


The Vegan Contribution 


A Tree-Based Culture 


Changing Life Styles 




Booklist and References 



In 1947 Egon Glesinger, who was chief of the forest products section of the Food 
and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), wrote a remarkable 
book, The Coming Age of Wood, in which he describes how restoration and proper 
management of the world's forests can bring in an age of plenty. This book and the 
work of Richard St Barbe Baker, the "Man of the Trees", and the plans for 
constructive villages as the basis of a new world wide civilisation to which 
Mahatma Gandhi devoted his last years, inspired this booklet. 

It presents the grave crises that threaten the continuation of life and claims that 
regeneration of the world's forests could do much to resolve them. 

With sufficient research, carefully selected and nurtured trees can be grown in most 
habitable regions of the world to meet, with the help of properly directed science 
and technology, nearly all the material needs of humans and, at the same time, 
restore and maintain environmental health. 

Properly managed forests, with adjacent integrated forest industries, could be the 
regional centres of rings of self-reliant village communities. Modern communication 
technology would prevent isolation and facilitate global cooperation. Such 
developments would both require and foster fundamental changes in human values 
and habits and lead to an era of abundance, peace and spiritual evolution. 

These ideas, only very briefly presented here, are visionary but also eminently 
practical given the necessary awareness and willingness to discard old habits that 
are no longer relevant. The present materialist, competitive, violent civilisation 
which has spread rapidly throughout the world is not sustainable. We need above all 
the vision and hope of a practically based alternative. 

"Without vision the people perish. " 


Take in C0 2 and store the carbon in wood, thus checking global warming. 

Give out oxygen. 
Transpire water to clouds, promoting rainfall. 




w Xx 















They could even reverse it if enough forests were established! Enough land would 
be available if livestock farming was phased out. Trees take in C0 2 and store carbon 
in their wood. When wood is burned, C0 2 returns to the atmosphere. However, if 
forests are of mixed species, and those grown for their wood are selectively felled 
and saplings immediately planted in their place, the forest unit would be a 
permanent sink for carbon. 



In 1980 the World Wildlife Fund, the International Institute for Nature and the 
Environment, and the United Nations Environment Programme; jointly produced 
and distributed world wide The World and Conservation Strategy. In the popular 
version How to Save the World Richard Allen depicted the prospect before us in an 
arresting graphic: 




Fig. 2 

Under it he wrote: 

If current rates of land degradation continue, close to one third of the 
world's arable land (as symbolised by the stalk of grain) will be destroyed 
in the next 20 years. Similarly by the end of this century (at present rates of 
clearance), the remaining area of unlogged forest will be halved. During 
this period the world population is expected to increase by almost half from 
just over 4000 million to just over 6000 million. (Allen 1980) 

Eleven years later, the deserts were still advancing, the soils were still eroding, air 
and water still being polluted and the forests destroyed. World population was well 
past the 5000 million mark and a greater proportion was deprived and malnourished, 
in rich as well as in poor countries. We were warned to expect 600 to 650 million 
seriously malnourished people by the year 2000. 

Brown (1990) shows how the phenomenal increase in the world's grain harvest, 
witnessed between 1950 and 1984, has slowed down because of the growing 
scarcity of new crop land and fresh water, land degradation and soil erosion. The 
artificial fertilisers that were largely responsible for increased yields are now being 
recognised as contributing to soil degradation. They use large quantities of fossil 
fuels. They are not sustaining or sustainable. Drought conditions reduced the 1988 
grain harvest in the United States to below that used for domestic consumption. 
Such droughts are likely to become more frequent if global warming takes over. So 
much for "the world's bread basket"! 

Since 1980 two further threats to survival have been revealed - global warming and 
ozone layer depletion. The report of the September 1984 Fate of the Earth 
Conference contained these ominous words: 


What nuclear war could do in 50 to 150 minutes, an exploding population 
assaulting the earth's life-support systems could do in 50 to 150 years. 

Probably Patrick McCully, writing in The Ecologist of Nov/Dec 1989 did not 
exaggerate when he said that: 

The threat is so apocalyptic, and the actions needed to avert it so drastic, 
that even environmentalists find it hard to admit the full scale of the social 
and political changes necessary. (McCully 1989) 

Can people be awakened to the dangers in time? There are hopeful signs but people 
are still easily satisfied with inadequate responses - with giving a green coat of paint 
to basically wasteful and destructive lifestyles and systems. Much is being done to 
inform and educate as the dangers increase and become more obvious the pace of 
change will quicken. The warnings must be regarded as challenge not prophecy - 

Danger fosters the rescuing power. 

(Holderlein: German Poet 1770-1843) 

Shortening the Time of Troubles 

Only by shifting our collective attention to the basic biological aspects of 
the human situation can we hope to mitigate and shorten the time of 
troubles into which we are moving. (Aldous Huxley) 

The basic biological aspect of the human situation is that we, and all other animals 
are absolutely dependent on the activities of green plants. In the process called 
photosynthesis, they fix energy from the sun in the carbohydrates they synthesize 
from C0 2 and water. On this all animals depend directly, or indirectly through eating 
other animals. 

In the same process, plants release the oxygen that, in respiration, animals use to 
release the energy from their food. Similarly only plants can synthesize the material 
that build up their bodies and the bodies of the animals that eat them. Predatory 
animals eat plants "second hand"! 

We and other animals are dependent on plants not only for food but for nearly all 
other necessities. 

Most people learned the facts (see next page, fig 3) in school, but few, not even 
scientists, take them sufficiently into account when facing the life annihilating 
prospects before us. Only by using the soil, water and plants with due care and 
economy can human life and the life of all highly developed species be maintained. 

Civilisations of the past foundered because they 

destroyed their soils and created deserts. Now our 

world wide civilisation is endangered by 

similar profligacy. 


OXYGEN breathed in by 
■^ plants and animals 


whose excreta 

and dead bodies are 

reduced to soil by 



dead plants are 

reduced by bacteria to 


' are eaten by predatory 


whose excreta 

and dead bodies are 

reduced to soil by 



Fig. 3 


The cycle of life only functions sustainably if a balance is kept between the products 
of green plants and the animals that eat them. At the moment it is being disrupted, 
not so much by the exploding human population, as by the profligate feeding habits 
of the rich and by the animals they breed unnecessarily to satisfy their desire for 
meat and milk. Such animals are amounting to a second population explosion, cattle 
numbers alone more than doubled between 1960 and 1980, and they do not yield 
anything, not even fertiliser, that could not be obtained more economically, in terms 
of basic resources, from plants. Animals compete with humans for land, water, 
energy, human labour, research facilities and other resources. 

In the UK 80% to 90% of the 46 million acres of agricultural land is used to support 
animals (Yates 1986). In addition millions of tons of feed-stuffs are imported, much 
from Third World countries. 

Animals yield as meat and milk only a small proportion of their feed. (Fig. 4) 


Cattle (milk) saBSMaaw/a^ 

Cattle (beef) 
Sheep (lamb) 

3P i 





10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100% 

From Need, Greed and Myopia and Scientific American, September 1976 

Fig. 4 

In general an omnivorous American type diet requires 0.62 hectares - a vegan, i.e. 
one without any animal products, needs 0.08 hectares. 


Water is a dwindling resource in many parts of the world. Animal farming makes 
great demands on it. Paul Erlich, in Population Resources and the Environment 
1971, states that it takes 200 to 250 gallons of water to produce a pound of rice but 
2500 to 6000 gallons to produce a pound of meat - taking into account the water the 
animals drink, the amount used to grow their feed and in slaughtering and 

Energy Use 

Modern methods of agriculture are heavily dependent on non-renewable fossil fuels 
for the manufacture and running of their machines, for artificial fertilizers, 
pesticides and herbicides. D & M Pimental in their book Food, Energy & Society 
(Resources & Environmental Science Series 1979) reveal another advantage of the 
direct plant diet. 


Nearly twice as much fossil energy is expended for the food in a 
lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet than the pure vegetarian. For the non- 
vegetarian diet, the fossil energy input is more than three-fold that of 
the pure vegetarian diet. 

Fossil 1 I 

Plant I 





15 000 





Daily food energy intake of pure vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians 
(L-O) and non-vegetarians and the calculated fossil energy inputs to 
produce these diets under U.S. conditions. 

Fig. 5 

At present the worlds soils and water could grow enough plant foods to feed the 
human population adequately. Millions live on the edge of starvation, going over to 
death when there is a climatic vagary, because the rich use their power to 
commandeer resources to grow luxuries for themselves instead of essentials for all. 
Much of the basic cereal production goes to feed "livestock" kept in appalling 
conditions, and vast areas of forest are destroyed for grazing lands that quickly 
deteriorate to desert conditions. 

Every effort must be made to reduce human population growth humanely or else it 
will be reduced by disaster. The second population explosion must also be dealt with 
by phasing out breeding. The demand for meat is rising among the elites of 


developing countries. Everyone who recognises the cost in environmental terms 
needs to attend to his or her diet. 

In an article entitled Save the Trees, Don't Eat Meat published in the Illustrated 
Weekly of India, 11.11.1990, Maneke Gandhi, the Indian Minister for the 
Environment, exposes the wasteful eating habits of the West that are spreading fast 
in India. 

More grain is fed by the USA and USSR to livestock than is consumed by 
the people of the entire third world. Britain gives two thirds of its home 
grown cereal to its livestock - that amount could satiate 250 million people 
each year. Even then it imports grain for livestock ... Third world fodder, 
...including soya beans from India provides every tenth litre of milk and 
every tenth pound of meat produced in the EEC. . . . 

She describes how most of the goats and sheep that supply meat in India: 

"Feed off the hoof" on the forest land, in the heart of the jungle, on 
hillsides, on the roadsides, in village panchayat land, on government land 
that is totally ravaged by the animals ... all the 'Project Tiger' areas and 
indeed all the national parks are failing or on the verge of extinction (as in 
Bharatpur bird sanctuary) because of the huge inflow of cattle and goats 
that eat up all the young shoots, and whose owners murder the wild 
animals to protect their meat. 

A single sheep or goat destroys 20 hectares of government land before it is 
killed to feed only the upper middle class. (Gandhi 1990) 

No wonder Maneka Gandhi, describes meat as the ultimate luxury in India and 
appeals to people to give it up if they want to "save the country's green cover, to 
increase the oxygen in the air and the fresh water in the ground". 

Similar stories could be told about other parts of the world and about other forms of 
madness in the present wasteful and destructive lifestyles of the dominant culture. 
They will have no place in the COMING AGE OF THE TREE. 



Trees, as shown in the picture on page 5, yield many products, "everything man 
needs from cradle to the grave" as Richard St Barbe Baker, the Man of the Trees, 
was fond of saying. 

They yield wood to make into innumerable objects, from houses and furniture to 
bridges and boats, from railway sleepers to violins and artists easels, to the many 
articles we use daily. Wood is pulped for paper, treated chemically for rayon and 
synthetic fabrics of many kinds, which would replace cotton. 

Cotton has been described in Africa as "the mother of famine" because of the 
acreage it takes from food production. More artificial fertilisers and pesticides are 
used on cotton than other crops to the detriment of both the health of the soil and 
that of the workers in the cotton fields. Egon Glesinger (1947) in The Coming Age 
of Wood wrote that, when used for fibre, "A forest acre can match the annual harvest 
of five acres of cotton land". 

Synthetic fabrics are today far superior to the early ones that did not allow the skin 
to 'breathe'. There is some concern about pollutants released during the manufacture 
of synthetics, but doubtless this could be dealt with if health and true economy of 
resources was the motive rather than short term profit. 

Wood can provide the raw material for a vast range of plastics, from that used to 
make shopping bags to building materials stronger than concrete. John Emery writes 
in the New Scientist, "If some of Europe's pastures reverted to woodland, trees could 
become a vital renewable resource for the chemical industry when fossil fuels ran 
out" (Emery 1987). Additionally there are many other products: cork, dyes, resins, 
medicines, sugars and abundant food. 

Perhaps we shouldn't wait until fossil fuels run out; to meet the challenge of global 
warming we should stop using them as soon as possible. 

Wood for Energy- 
Wood is, as it always has been, the fuel source for most of the world's people. It is a 
renewable resource and is abundantly available, providing due attention is given to 
planting and care of the trees. This is not happening in many parts of the world and 
wood is becoming scarce in some areas, with women having to walk long distances 
for cooking fuel. 

Windmills in exposed and arid places, (not in beautiful and fertile valleys), solar 
energy, especially in the tropics and a reassessment of energy needs, can all do much 
to reduce the need for combustible materials of any kind. When it is burned wood 
should be used in efficient stoves which make the most effective use of the heat and 


burn the otherwise polluting emissions. With the use of modern technology, wood 
can generate gas, electricity and liquid fuel. 

Wood is becoming an important feedstock, especially grown for advanced 
energy conversion processes in developing as well as industrial countries - 
for the production of process heat, electricity and, potentially, for other 
fuels such as combustible gases and liquids. (Our Common Future 1987) 

Wood and other plant fuels will be the only source of liquid fuel when oil and coal 
are not available (apart possibly from hydrogen produced by electrolysis from direct 
solar electricity). It is already being used to make petrol substitutes, especially in the 
US. Farmers in the UK are using coppiced wood for on-site production of 
electricity, growing it on 'set aside' land. 

Wood used for fuel should come from that not suitable for other purposes. Egon 
Glesinger (1950) maintained that 80% of the wood from trees felled was wasted 
because representatives of different interests came into the forests to take just parts 
of the trees, for veneer, lumber or pulp. The rest would be burned or left to rot on 
site. He pleaded for the establishment of integrated forest industries adjacent to the 
forest, so that the wood unused in each process could be the raw material in another 
and the final waste collected for fuel. MacKenzie (1991) claims that a substantial 
proportion of Sweden's energy needs could be met with unused wood biomass, 
"chiefly branches, bark, sawdust and other residues from the timber industry." 

In the coming age of the tree, monocultures will be a thing of the past. Trees of 
mixed species, suitable for different purposes, will be grown in the same forests. 
The object will be to aid human development and creativity rather than to make a 
quick profit. 

Much of the need for paper will have passed with the development of 
communication technology and the cessation of the waste of huge amounts on the 
junk mail and advertisements in newspapers and journals designed to promote 
economic growth and the consumer society. 

Trees and Abundant Food 

Our hunter gatherer ancestors probably got the major part of their food from plants 
direct. Men the hunters brought in the occasional animal, and women collected 
fruits, seeds, roots and leaves, much of them from trees. There are good reasons why 
we should turn to the trees again as a main source of food, and those of us in 
affluent societies should give the lead. Food bearing trees fall into three groups. 

Leguminous Trees 

Leguminous trees are particularly valuable suppliers of food. Besides bearing large 
crops of seeds that are rich in body building proteins and energy supplying 


carbohydrates, many of them harbour in their roots bacteria that fix nitrogen from 
not only the trees but also neighbouring plants. There are hundreds of types of 
leguminous trees (not all with edible fruit) and many of them grow well in arid areas 
and are being used to reclaim desert regions. 

Australia faces severe desertification problems. Native trees were felled over large 
areas for sheep farming. Now a research team in Sydney led by Dr Brand, (Brand 
1989) has discovered that some of the native wattle (acacia) trees have seeds whose 
protein content is higher than that of meat. They have comparatively large amounts 
of carbohydrates, fat, iron, calcium, zinc and copper. One variety with 24% protein 
has a "sweet delicious flavour" and needs hardly any processing. Others can be 
milled and used to make excellent bread. "It shows", says Dr Brand, "how inland 
aborigines were able to survive in one of the world's harshest environments". 

In a U.N.E.S.C.O. project carob trees from Cyprus are being used to turn areas 
bordering the Limpopo river, which were previously unproductive, into thriving 
forest farms. Carob plantations yield annually up to 50 tonnes per hectare of sweet 
pods which are 21% protein. 

Honey locust trees (gledistras) are native to North America and have been 
naturalised in Europe. They yield 30 tonnes or more per hectare annually of beans 
which are 26% protein and 50% carbohydrates. (They have not yet fruited 
successfully in the UK.) 

Nut Trees 

There are almost a hundred species of nut trees growing worldwide, most of which 
produce large crops of nuts usually high in proteins, fats and carbohydrates. 

Mongongo nuts provide about a third of the diet of the Kung tribe (New Scientist, 
19th Aug 1989). The yehib tree, native to the Somalian desert is now recognised as a 
valuable source of food and other products and has earned government protection. 

Recent research in an area of the Amazon forest has revealed that Brazil nuts have a 
commercial value many times that of the timber from felled trees. 

In the UK we have hazel, beech and oak widespread and almonds, walnuts and 
sweet chestnuts in the south, all capable of yielding large crops of nutritious seeds. I 
know a man who, 1000 feet up in the Welsh hills gets, by careful selection and 
husbandry, good crops of hazel and walnuts. Richard St Barbe Baker, the 'man of 
the trees', calls oaks and sweet chestnuts 'corn trees'. Acorns (7% protein) can easily 
be cleared of their bitter tannin and used in any recipe requiring nuts and they can be 
ground into gluten free flour. 

Fruit Trees 

The delicious succulent fruits of many trees are already appreciated. Low in proteins 


they have useful sugars, minerals and vitamins. They probably have valuable health 
promoting properties. A few people concerned not to damage life, not even that of 
plants, attempt to live on the pulp of fruit alone, the only substance evolved in 
nature with the sole function of being eaten. In the short term they appear very 
healthy, but there is no evidence that such a diet can maintain health for long. Even 
gorillas, the most consistently vegetarian primates, eat large quantities of leaves and 
stems. Outside the tropics a fruitarian diet would involve dependence on imports. 
The addition of nuts and seeds can provide a human diet which reaches orthodox 
levels of nutrient intake. (See Raw Food Diets leaflet from MCL) 

Leaves as Food 

Many leaves, including those of beech, hawthorn, lime and chestnut, can be used for 
direct human consumption. Green leaves are particularly rich in well balanced 
proteins, vitamin A and minerals. Their fibrous bulk makes it difficult to eat large 
quantities. Simple machines to make leaf curd are now available, and are being used 
with good effect, especially among third world children. A leaf curd production 
scheme is now going ahead in England and samples are sold by Leafcycle, Coombe 
Farm, Tiverton, Devon, EX16 7RU. 

Alley Cropping and Agroforestry 

Some trees may take years before they bear fruit, but cereals and other crops can be 
grown between them in the earlier stages. It has been found that with 'alley 
cropping' using leguminous trees, there is a considerable increase in the yield of the 
plants grown between them. 

Agroforestry schemes in which a wide variety of food trees, bushes and vegetable 
crops are grown in association, are being widely used. Unfortunately livestock are 
being introduced into some of them with the tree leaves being used as fodder. As 
with all livestock feeding, most of the nutrients are used up for the animals own 
needs, only a small percentage are made available as meat and milk. (See fig. 4) 

All the while the trees are growing they are helping the environment in ways 
described in the next section. They should be grown for that reason alone, but when 
species are selected preference should be given to those that also yield food. This 
means oaks and beeches in England. They will bear abundant food for future 
generations when we have stopped importing half our food, much of it from 
countries where people go hungry. Freed from human interference the land would 
revert to beech and oak forest! 

The table in figure 6 (next page) gives some idea of the value of giving land 
worldwide to food bearing trees instead of to animal farming or even to arable 
crops. Yields vary greatly according to area, soil, climate, season, variety, and 
husbandry. Very little attention has been given to the value of tree crops and hence 
little research has been done on them. 



Agriculture and Forestry 

Crop Yield per Hectare including waste (Tonnes) 


Cereals 4-6 These yields are highly dependent 

upon artificial fertilizer. 

All Livestock 













Locust Beans 


These are not dependent upon artificial 
fertilizer and in some cases represent 
naturally occuring yields 


Protein Fat Carbohydrate 

(grams per 100 grams edible portions) 
Walnuts 16.0 64.0 15.5 

Dates 2.5 0.6 73.0 

Olives 1.5 24.0 

Carobs 21.0 1.5 66.0 

Locust Beans 26.0 10.0 50.0 

From Environmental Information Service, Newcastle on Tyne 

According to McCance & Widdowson Tables, HMSO: 

Lean beef has 20. 3g protein, 4.6g fat, and no carbohydrates per 100 gs 

100% flour has 13. 2g protein, 2.0g fat, and 65.8 carbohydrates 

fig. 6 



So trees properly selected planted and nurtured provide food clothing, shelter, 
energy and numerous extras which add up to abundant living. Even if they did not it 
would be vitally necessary to regenerate the forests for the sake of the 
environmental health. 

Trees and Water 

The roots of the great forest trees reach deep into the earth and draw up great 
quantities of water. Most of it passes out of the pores of the leaves to create 'oceans 
of the air'. Thus water that might sink beyond recall (there is a lake as big as France 
beneath the Sahara) is made available again for rain. 

It is well known that water vapour in the air, when forced to rise by mountain 
ranges, cools, condenses and falls as rain; water transpired by forests has a similar 
cooling effect on the air and 'seeds' rainclouds. Dr Paul Schreiber, the meteorologist 
who did much research in this field, concluded that a region covered by forest 
increases rainfall to the same degree as elevating the region by some 650 feet. Other 
observers maintain that the vertical influence of the forest extends in some cases to 
thousands of feet. Such belts of trees also protect the soil from desiccating winds; 
their benign influence in this respect extending to thirty times their average height. 

Trees and Erosion 

Erosion of topsoil, (represented by the stalk of grain in fig. 2) is one of the most 
serious threats to the survival of developed forms of life. According to Lester Brown 
(Brown 1990) "Since the mid century the world has lost nearly a fifth of the topsoil 
from its cropland." Even in England erosion is affecting over 40% of the arable 
land. Some governments, especially the US where the dust bowls of the 1930's are 
still powerful memories, are beginning to take steps to check the loss, but not nearly 
quickly enough. 

Trees help to prevent floods as well as droughts. When rain falls on a forest canopy 
its force is broken by the leaves and branches; the sponge like debris on the forest 
floor soaks up the water and prevents it from rushing unchecked down the slopes, 
carrying valuable topsoil with it, to swell rivers and cause floods (Fig 7). Instead it 
percolates slowly into the soil, replenishing the underground water table, feeding 
springs and regulating the flow of rivers. Floods and droughts caused by exceptional 
weather conditions cannot be prevented by forests, but their effects can be greatly 

In other areas wind is the chief agent of soil erosion. Once the protective cover of 
trees is gone, particles of soil blow away. Anything which damages soil structure, 
such as artificial fertilisers, constant ploughing for arable crops or the hooves of 


/ //7 


Rain, suae-eps dovyn 

/ 7/ //A /// / .' 

V/ V/ // / / ' < / Wv KUUcdes 

carryina precious 

Top soils fke 
rivers, cans cna floods. 

Rain drips -diTOuah 
trees and soal^s 
-cKrougk fellen leaves 
"to TtiaixL-^ain. 
-u.Ttderaround Waters. 

Fig. 7 

grazing animals, accelerates soil erosion. It is increasing to an alarming degree in 
many areas of the world. When the forests go the deserts come. Growing the right 
trees in the right way can check deserts and reclaim them. 

Trees and Global Warming 

It is now generally agreed (see reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate 
Change 1990) that certain gases are building up in the air and trapping the heat from 
the sun so as to cause global warming. Major changes in weather and in climatic 
regions are expected to occur. Storms and hurricanes could become more frequent 
and more violent, droughts could be prolonged and heatwaves might make some 
regions uninhabitable. The pattern of crops around the world could be drastically 
altered. The North American 'wheat basket' could dry up. Trees and wild animals 
would have difficulty in adapting quickly enough to the changing environment. As 
the seas warmed up flooding could submerge low-lying land. If temperatures rose 


sufficiently to melt the polar ice, flooding would be catastrophic. Some scientists, 
including James Lovelock, warn of a "differential greenhouse effect" by which cold 
conditions would increase at the poles and precipitate a new ice age. Climatologists 
say they cannot foretell effects in specific areas, but there is general agreement 
among scientists that they could be very serious, and that they could develop with 
unexpected suddenness. 

If we wait until we are sure what is going to happen it may be too late, so it seems 
good sense to limit emissions of the gases responsible as much and as soon as 

It is estimated that C02 released by the burning of fossil fuels and wood (some of it 
from the forests being destroyed worldwide) is responsible for about half of the 
global warming danger. Scientists are now addressing the question of how to check, 
perhaps reverse, the process. As explained in fig 3, green plants take in C02, use the 
carbon for energy and to build up their structures and give out oxygen. While the 
plankton of the oceans absorb an estimated half of the C02 given out, trees, because 
of their size and longevity, play a very important role storing large amounts of 
carbon in their woody tissues. While they live and while their wood is used for long 
lasting products and projects, large amounts of carbon are kept out of the 
atmosphere. When they are burned or decay they add no more than they originally 
took in. As a unit, a whole forest, with trees being planted as others are felled and in 
which the average age of the trees is constant, there is a permanent sink of carbon. 
Scientists are working out the acreage of forest necessary to check global warming. 

According to Greg Marland (see New Scientist 17.8.88) of the Oak Ridge National 
Laboratory in the US "... proper management of the plantations in temperate and 
tropical zones, together with the doubling of all existing forests, could return all the 
C02 released from factories and power stations since the industrial revolution to the 
biosphere (i.e. life forms) in about 35 years." Later he estimated that 7 million 
square kilometres could absorb current emissions of C02 from fossil fuels. 

The idea has gathered a lot of support around the world. For example 52 million 
trees are to be planted in Guatemala to absorb the C02 that will be given out by a 
new coal fired power station being built in the US (New Scientist 15.10.88). The 
American Forestry Association has launched a Global Relief Programme to 
encourage communities to plant 100 million trees in the US by 1992. The Dutch 
ministries of Environment and Agriculture, together with the Netherlands Electricity 
Generating Board, have agreed to plan to replant over 25 years some 250,000 
hectares of tropical rain forest burned or cut in Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador 
and Costa Rica (New Scientist 2.12.89). This will compensate for the annual 
emission of 6 million tonnes of C02 from two new coal fired power stations to be 
built near Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The Australian government plans to plant a 


billion trees during the 1990's to check both global warming and desertification. The 
UK government is encouraging tree planting on set-aside land and has plans for 9 
new forests to cover a million acres near large towns in England. 

The campaign to save the tropical forests is gaining strength, though adequate 
measures are difficult to implement in a world dominated by market forces. The 
very difficulties are helping to raise awareness of the need for fundamental change. 

The futility of converting tropical forests to cattle ranches is now recognised by the 
Brazilian government which has stopped tax relief and subsidies for ranchers. 

It is frequently said than once the tropical forests have been razed the land cannot be 
regenerated. Alternative news comes from Herbert Girardet. Filming in Para, in 
Amazonia, he found an area of 5000 acres that had been taken over by a group of 
destitute farmers and is being reclaimed as a successful agroforestry project. 

These projects are encouraging moves in the right direction but many more such are 
needed. The coal we have been burning with such profligacy was formed from the 
trees of the carboniferous age. By thus reducing the C02 concentration in the 
atmosphere of that time and adding to the oxygen, the trees made the balance of 
gases suitable for the evolution of large air breathing animals. Since the Industrial 
Revolution we have been releasing the carbon so that now animal life is in danger 
again. It seems logical to give the cycle another turn and store the carbon once more 
in trees. Even if fears of global warming should prove to have been exaggerated, the 
tree planting is justified by the other reasons given above. 

Trees and Reclaiming the Deserts 

In 1952 Richard St Barbe Baker crossed the Sahara, a desert already bigger than 
Australia and was shocked to observe the alarming rate at which it was advancing. 
He was convinced that it could not only be checked, by planting the right trees, but 
that much of it could be reclaimed to provide fertile living space for millions of the 
world's landless refugees. He set to work to make plans and to gain support for them 
from governments around the Sahara and worldwide. 

Much has been done to implement such plans. In some parts, water has been found 
and wells sunk. Trees that can anchor shifting sands have been planted. They have 
deep roots and can thrive with minimum water. As they flourish they act as nurse 
trees to other species. More could have been done had there been the political will 
and freedom from war. Very much remains to be done. 

St Barbe had the idea of using the armies of the world as labour in this important 
work. In the Guardian (27.2.91) there was a letter by Robert Hart suggesting that a 
contribution to peace in the Middle East could be made by the countries cooperating 


to reclaim the deserts. The countries bordering the Sahara have already developed 
considerable expertise, and Israel's achievements in making the deserts blossom are 
well known. Instead of quarrelling over the remaining fertile regions, and destroying 
them in the process, they could thus re-create vast new areas for settlement, and 
promote peace at the same time. It could be done by planting trees! 

Similar plans are going ahead in other parts of the world. G. Tansey in the Financial 
Times (27.2.91) describes conditions in Australia where the National Farmers 
Federation, the government and conservation groups are cooperating to reclaim vast 
areas of degraded land. Much of it was thick forest when the European settlers 
arrived. It was burned down mostly for sheep pasture, some for arable crops, 
erosion, salination and desertification resulted. Much of the work is being done by 
local Land Care groups. The way in which local groups are assuming responsibility 
in many areas of the world is another hopeful sign of positive change. 

Land Availability 

If enough trees are to be planted to provide the many different products that they can 
yield to provide abundant living for all the world's people and to serve the 
environment in the ways indicated, the acreage required will be enormous but no 
greater than that cleared through the millennia for grazing animals. It could be made 
available if livestock farming were phased out. Of the Earth's 130 million square 
kilometres (msk), 41 msk are forest and 31 msk are pasture for animals bred 
unnecessarily for food. Such animals are also given a large proportion of the crops 
from the 15msk of cropland. Then there are the deserts to reclaim. Even Gregg 
Maxland's idea of doubling the world's forests would not be impossible. 

However many people believe that animal farming is essential not only to supply 
food but for other reasons. 

1. For soil fertility: 
Many people are becoming aware of the damaging effects, on the soil and on the 
food production from it, of artificial fertilisers and support the move towards 
'organic farming'. The majority of organic farmers are saying that animal manure 
and slaughterhouse products (bone blood etc.) are necessary and support a return to 
mixed farming. There are no nutrients in animal manure and products that were not 
in the plants the animals ate. Soil fertility can be restored and maintained by the use 
of plant compost, mulching, green manuring techniques, and seaweed. Human 
excreta, carefully treated, can and must be returned to the land: we cannot go on 
taking valuable organic material, minerals and trace elements from the soil and 
pouring them down the sewers into the sea where they become damaging pollutants; 
they should go back to the soil. 

There are now many food growing projects that demonstrate the efficacy of vegan- 
organic methods. These need to be made widely known and developed on a larger 


scale in order to check the return into the cul-de-sac of mixed farming. Farmers 
wishing to escape from chemical traps and monocultures are seeking information 
about viable methods. They do not want to be involved in the expenses and hazards 
of mixed farming, nor in the labour. Animals have to be tended every day, 365 days 
a year. Bernard Shaw used to speak of "Man's endless slavery to the animals he 
exploits." One German farmer who got good crops of cereal for 12 successive years 
without either artificial chemicals or animal products found that there was definitely 
less labour required than on a neighbouring mixed farm. The Jean Pain method of 
making compost from brushwood could add greatly to the amount available and at 
the same time reduce the likelihood of forest fires. (Details may be found on the 

2. To make use of coarse plant materials. 

It is sometimes said that animals are necessary to turn grass and other plant 
materials too coarse for human digestion into meat and milk. Much grass land could 
be planted with trees, with all the advantages already described. Simple machines 
are already being widely used to extract the nutrients from leaves. Grass could be 
used to make leaf curd. (See 'Trees and Abundant Food', above.) 

3. To provide draught power. 

Many farmers in the Third World still use animals to pull ploughs. This releases 
humans from toil. However it has been calculated (A.J. Smith 1981) that, even when 
female animals that yield milk and eventually meat are used, more land is required 
to grow their food than is justified by the amount of human energy they save. Most 
draught animals require much too much land for their maintenance - and they 
require human labour for their care. The land should be used for trees, which require 
no ploughing and little labour. Efficient hand cultivators are now available for the 
arable crops that can be grown between the trees. Huge hedgeless fields, worked by 
giant heavy machines, belong to the environmentally destructive era that is passing. 


There has come to the fore recently another strong reason for phasing out animal 
farming: cattle, sheep, goats and other ruminants belch out large amounts of 
methane from the bacteria in their guts that break down cellulose, the substance that 
makes grass indigestible by humans. "A typical domestic cow produces about 200 
litres of methane a day" (Boyle & Ardill 1989) Methane is 20-25 times as powerful 
as C02 as a greenhouse gas. It is already judged responsible for 12 to 18% of global 
warming, as compared with C02's 50%, and is building up much more rapidly. 
James Lovelock said in his Schumacher lecture that methane probably the most dangerous substance that we are injecting into the 
atmosphere. Methane is not only a key agent in the ozone hole phenomenon 
but, much more seriously, it is a greenhouse gas that before long may 
overtake carbon dioxide in significance. (Lovelock 1990 p. 68) 



The above facts make a convincing case for phasing out animal farming and giving 
the land released to forests. Animal farming yields nothing that cannot be got more 
economically from plants, especially trees - and the animals suffer increasingly. In 
intensive rearing systems which have spread rapidly through the world since the 
1950s animals are deprived of all significance in living. Most are imprisoned in 
cramped conditions with nothing to do but eat, excrete and produce flesh or eggs. 

Modern urban living protects most people from knowledge of the slaughter and 
suffering inseparable from the production of meat and other animal products. If they 
think about it at all, they assure themselves that animals are treated kindly and 
slaughtered humanely. A consideration of the report published in 1984 by the 
government appointed Farm Animal Welfare Committee would dispel the latter 
illusion, and as for the former, while some cruel practices may have been stopped, 
other more sophisticated ones have taken their place. 

Until fairly recently the facts about the exploitation of cows and calves were not 
widely known. Obviously meat involved slaughter but milk was believed to be free 
of it. As a result of the distribution of many thousands of leaflets over the last 15 
years and recent press & TV publicity, many must now know that calves in the 
modern dairy industry are taken from their mothers soon after birth with resulting 
anguish for both. Those calves not needed to be reared for beef or milk production 
are slaughtered immediately, rennet from their stomachs being used to make cheese, 
or worse still they are sent to veal units to be narrowly confined until they reach a 
useful slaughter weight. Their mothers are killed as soon as their milk yield drops, 
or the market turns against them. 

People comfort themselves with the notion that animals do not suffer as they do. 
There is no reason to believe this. Russell Brain, Quaker, authority on the brain and 
surgeon to the Queen said in a Swarthmore lecture: 

I personally can see no reason for conceding mind to my fellow men and 
denying it to animals. Mental functions rightly viewed are but servants of 
the impulses and emotions by which we live and are surely diencephalic in 
their neurological location. Since the diencephalon is well developed in 
animals and birds, I at least cannot doubt that the interests and activities of 
animals are correlated with awareness and feelings in the same way as my 
own and may be for all I know just as vivid. 

Calves are normally active, curious and playful animals. Most cows have strong 
maternal instincts and often cry and search for days for their calves. Many stories 
are told of their efforts to get back to them, the one given below is not unusual. 


Two year old Blackie was sent to market with her first born calf. They were sold to 
different farmers and taken to farms seven miles apart. Next morning the farmer 
who had bought the calf was surprised to find it had acquired a mother during the 
night. Blackie had jumped a gate and managed the long trek in the dark to find her 
baby. The farmer's wife said, "We will buy her! They will stay together! I am a 
mother myself and can imagine what she felt like." 

Most eggs come from hens imprisoned in tiny cages, deprived of all opportunity to 
'exercise their behaviour patterns'. Beak clipping even prevents them from pecking 
their food properly. As for free range eggs, even these are not free from the taint of 
slaughter because in order to get laying hens it is necessary to have fertile eggs and 
half of these hatch into male chicks. These are dispensed with immediately or are 
reared 'for the table' usually in broiler houses. 

The present profit motivated system causes people to suffer too. Many millions die 
yearly of hunger, poverty and related diseases. More than 25 million have died in 
wars since 1945. 

The fault lies with wrong human values and the systems they have created, with the 
greed, the corruption, the lust for power of the comparatively few, and the 
ignorance, the apathy the lack of compassion of the many. The Movement for 
Compassionate Living defines compassionate living as "making connections 
between the way we live and others - people, animals, the planet suffer, and 
working for change in ourselves and the world." 

Much of the food in our supermarket shelves, and in other shops has come from 
parts of the world where people are hungry, in many areas subsistence farmers, 
powerless because of their lack of money, have been driven off their land so that it 
could be used to grow cash crops for export. Profits go to rich landlords, 
multinationals and debt ridden governments. The displaced people crowd into 
shanty towns round the polluting parasitic cities to live miserable lives as beggars or 
machine slaves. Their former lives may have been hard in western terms but they 
kept their dignity and independence. 

Some of the dispossessed try to cling to their traditional ways: they fell more of the 
forest or cultivate hillsides thus adding to global warming and erosion. Others stay 
to work on the lands that were once theirs, for starvation wages and at risk of 
poisoning by pesticides. 

I shall never forget going into Sainsburys at the height of the 1974 Ethiopian famine 
and finding a packet of lentils labelled 'Produce of Ethiopia'. Enquiries to 
Sainsburys headquarters brought the response, "lentils are a major export of 
Ethiopia upon which the government depends for foreign exchange. More than 


usual have been exported this year because crops of lentils have failed in other parts 
of the world." But the peasants of Ethiopia were starving while their staple food was 
exported. And for what was the foreign exchange used? Interest on the debts they 
had been encouraged to incur? Cars for the rich? Arms? 

Drought was blamed for the 1974 and further famines and the droughts were largely 
caused by the felling of the trees with which much of Ethiopia had been covered. 
The suffering is exacerbated by war. Do both sides sell the peoples' food to pay for 
arms? Most of the UK arms sales go to the Third World. How far does our affluence 
depend on such trade? Trade should be only in what is surplus to the needs of the 
local people. It should never be in goods that cause suffering or damage to the 
environment. Time and time again traditional crops that could have fed local people 
have been replaced by cash crops that later became valueless in face of overseas 
competition. To the vagaries of nature have been added the unpredictability of 
market forces. 

A few years ago Quakers returning from Uganda reported that the cash economy 
there had "almost completely collapsed" and that as a result, "the export of cash 
crops such as tea and coffee are now minimal. People grow what they can eat. 
Uganda is about the only country in the region not needing large amounts of food 
aid." Again John Madeley writing in the New Scientist reported that because 
transport facilities in Tanzania had broken down "... villagers could not get their 
produce to market. It stays in the villages and people eat it themselves. Moreover 
because they cannot get their coffee beans to market, they are switching to maize. 
This again means more food for their families." (Madeley 1984). Recently a Kenyan 
woman said, "We used to have enough to eat; now you cannot get food unless you 
have got money." 

In the 'successful', industrially developed countries, people are similarly dominated 
by money and market forces. The masses are programmed machine slaves and 
consumers of the trivialities spawned out by the resource-wasting, polluting 
factories. Crammed into trains and buses, transported from their high rise battery 
houses to their offices and factories, their bodies fed on denatured food, their minds 
filled with mechanical entertainment and crude sensationalism, they are hardly more 
truly free to function in ways that matter than the animals whose exploitation they 
condone by their indifference. Those who work the system are corrupted and 
debased. Those who fall foul of it sleep under newspapers in prestigious doorways. 

A system that involves such suffering for both people and animals must not be 
allowed to continue. There are movements working for its passing. 



In 1944 a little group of vegetarians became aware that there was more cruelty 
associated with milk than with meat production. Motivated by disinterested 
compassion for exploited animals and inspired by Donald Watson, their first 
secretary's words, "What is morally right cannot be dietetically wrong", they set out 
to show that it was possible to live healthily without any animal products at all and 
to bear and bring up healthy children. They called themselves VEGAN because their 
movement started in vegetarianism and carried it to a logical conclusion 

They suffered considerable ostracism, even from vegetarians who said they would 
bring disrepute to the meatless diet. Relatives accused them of risking their 
children's proper development. They were not catered for in restaurants, aeroplanes, 
hotels, hospitals ... A few in the very early days suffered from vitamin B12 
deficiency. The vitamin had not been isolated and studied in 1944. Now 47 years 
later their faith has been vindicated. There are people in their 80's and 90's who have 
been vegan for decades enjoying good health. There are young adults, vegan since 
birth, with healthy life-vegan children of their own. Vegan healthy pregnancies, easy 
births and fine babies have surprised and convinced people who have witnessed 
them. Life vegan young people are excelling academically and in athletics. 

In the 1960's Dr Frey Ellis, an eminent physician and consultant haematologist put 
the vegan diet on a scientific basis, and attracted much further scientific research. 
Now anyone who takes the trouble to study the diet will come to the conclusion that 
humans do not need animal products. Doubts that do arise in the minds of the 
uninformed are easily resolved. 


There is obviously plenty of protein in the vegan diet - see Fig. 6 - some even in 
fruit. Claims are made that proteins from meat are more suitable for humans because 
the balance of amino acids in it corresponds with that of human flesh. (By the same 
reasoning horses should eat beef!) Modern research has shown that a mixture of 
plant proteins, e.g. those from cereals plus those from beans and peas, add up to a 
balance of amino that corresponds with that of meat. For example bread is low in 
the amino acid lysine and high in methionine. Beans are high in lysine and low in 
methionine. Taken together (beans on toast!) they supplement each other and 
achieve the right balance with the minimum of surplus amino acids. If bread were 
eaten alone considerably more would be needed to get enough lysine to balance 
with the methionine and therefore there would be methionine in excess of that need 
for protein building. This excess would not be wasted, it would be burned up for 


In subsistence agriculture a cereal is grown with bean to meet needs economically. 
Did the farmers know this from the observations of some ancient herbalist dietician, 
an unconscious feeling for the 'rightness' of a healthy diet or could it be that they 
observed that cereals grow best in rotation with beans (because of the nodules of 
nitrogen fixing bacteria in bean roots) and the dietary benefit is a happy 


People are concerned that they may not get enough calcium from plant foods alone. 
Certainly the main source of calcium in the western omnivorous diet is milk, but 
this substance evolved to meet the needs of the young of a large boned quick 
growing animal. There is no evidence that vegans suffer more from calcium 
deficiency than omnivores. Good vegan sources of calcium are parsley, almonds, 
haricot beans, broccoli tips, baking powder. Elderly women probably suffer from 
brittle bones because of hormone changes and the lack of vitamin D (calcium cannot 
be used without adequate vitamin D). They would do better to take more exercise in 
the sunlight, or use sunlamps if housebound, rather than milk and cod liver oil. 


Iron is said to be less easily utilised if it is from a plant source; its utilization is aided 
by vitamin C which is high in a vegan diet. There is no evidence that vegans suffer 
more from anaemia than omnivores. 

Vitamin B12 

No vitamin B12 has so far been discovered in plants, save perhaps spirulina. The 
claim that this algae is rich in B12 has recently been questioned. It may contain only 
an analogue that does not function in the same way. 

B12 is only synthesised by certain strains of bacteria and protozoa that live widely 
in the soil and water, and in the intestines of mammals. In humans the bacteria have 
moved too far down the intestines, away from the stomach which excretes a so 
called 'intrinsic' factor without which the vitamin cannot be used. (Perhaps this 
move occurred when frugivorous pre-humans began to eat meat?) Dr Frey Ellis was 
hopeful that in children, vegan from before birth, the bacteria would re-colonize the 
higher regions of the intestines. 

Early B12 deficiency symptoms are similar to those from anaemia, plus some 
soreness on the tongue and tingling in the extremities. If this deficiency is not dealt 
with damage to the nerves and spinal column can occur. Providing food 
supplements with B12 are taken, and providing the intrinsic factor is being secreted 
the condition can be prevented and remedied. B12 supplemented foods are easily 
obtainable from yeast extracts, some plant milks and many processed soya foods. 
B12 deficiency symptoms are rare in vegans and fairly common in elderly 


omnivores lacking in intrinsic factor. If intrinsic factor is insufficient injections of 
B12 have to be given. 

It is not surprising that humans thrive on a vegan diet because it accords with their 
basically frugivorous physiology, probably changed little since their pre-human 
ancestors 'came down from the trees' in response to an earlier environmental 
challenge. Now when a very grave environmental challenge requires them to 
depend once again on tree products, the return to their primaeval diet is easy - at 
least physiologically. 

Veganism is growing rapidly, especially among the young, in industrially developed 
countries, who have been aroused out of the complacency of their parents by the 
publicity given to the exceedingly cruel practices of factory farming. There is a 
danger that some may take the diet too casually and depend too much on the 
excessively processed soya foods now readily available. Those that depart from the 
recommended vegan diet, with its high proportion of fresh, raw fruits and salads, its 
whole cereals and varied intake, risk spoiling its good reputation and thus hindering 
a most important development, that of disinterested compassion as the motivational 
force in human affairs. 

The growth in compassion for animals during the last few decades will come to be 
recognised as one of the most amazing and one of the most seminal developments of 
our times. 

When before has a man gone willingly to prison to save a mouse? When before has 
an eminent professor of philosophy led a successful, Gandhian sit-in to save animals 
from cruel experiments? When before have misguided actions and threats on behalf 
of animals sent tremors of anxiety and fear through the lands? (Sadly some of the 
animal activists have not yet found the non-violent Gandhian way.) 

If life on this planet is to go on it is essential that human scientific and technological 
powers be directed with compassion and reverence for life. Yet compassion has had 
a chequered progress in human affairs. It is possible that its progress has been 
hindered by a belief, kept out of consciousness but thereby all the more powerful, 
that humans can only maintain their health by enslaving, exploiting, robbing of their 
young and slaughtering highly sentient creatures with feelings similar to their own. 
The vegan experiment of the last half-century has now proved conclusively that this 
is not true. It has taken all plea of necessity from animal farming and cleared the 
way for a tree based culture as an alternative to that which is now spreading fast 
through the developing world and threatening the extinction of the human species 
either in war or in environmental destruction, and causing immense suffering now! 


Time for Change 

Can we respond creatively to the cases that confront us, 'shorten the time of troubles' 
and move into a new age of abundant living? Undoubtedly it is the behaviour of 
humans that is responsible for our present life threatening predicaments. Is it 
possible to change it fundamentally enough? Idealists are often parried with the 
taunt "you can't change human nature". What is the essential nature of humans, of 
creatures whose behaviour veers from loving concern to delighting in torture, from 
rushing to aid the hungry to indulging in the greed that promotes the hunger, from 
the indiscriminate slaughter of their own kind to the giving of their lives to save 
others, from scientific rationalism to M.A.D justification of potentially race suicidal 

With most animals it is diet that is the strongest determinant of structure and 
characteristic behaviour. Is it so with humans? It is only a short time ago, on the 
evolutionary time scale that our herbivorous, forest dwelling ancestors turned 
predator probably in response to an environmental crisis. Some scientists claim that 
it was the change to predatory living that initiated the growth of intellectual powers 
and typical human behaviour. Language developed with the need to cooperate in 
hunting. Manual dexterity developed with the making of weapons needed by 
hunting animals without natural fangs and claws. But language also promoted 
reasoning powers and poetry. Manual dexterity also made possible crafts and arts. 

As reason developed, the creature became self-conscious and began to ask 'the big 
questions' about the meaning and purpose of life and to feel insecure when 
confronted with thoughts of death. Some made up answers about tyrannical unseen 
beings who could be propitiated with, often horrific, rites. Others came to an 
awareness of a reality behind the appearance of things, a creative spirit, that was 
beyond their understanding but that they felt was akin to the feelings of love and 
compassion in their own being. Relationship with this spirit was of paramount 
importance. Most veered between these two interpretations, as desire for personal 
security wrestled with the developing spirit within them, and many do so today. 

When animal farming took over from hunting there came significant developments, 
both material and spiritual. As hunters Homo sapiens had functioned as other 
carnivores to check environmentally unsustainable increases of herbivores. As 
animal breeders and protectors, they promoted the second population explosion that 
compounds the present crisis. With this animal husbandry there crept in a spiritually 
debilitating treachery. For a man to hunt and kill an animal that had evolved in the 
chase, that was subject to the same natural laws as he was, was one thing. To care 
for a creature from birth, to observe that it had feelings and affections like his own, 
to teach it to trust him, and then to turn and kill it, this was to sin against 
compassion and hinder human development, and could help account for ambivalent 
human behaviour. 


Man suppresses in himself, unnecessarily, the highest spiritual capacity - 
that of sympathy and pity towards creatures like himself - and by violating 
his own feelings becomes cruel. And how deeply seated in the human heart 
is the injunction not to take life! But by the assertion that God ordained the 
slaughter of animals, and, above all, as a result of habit, people entirely 
lose their natural feeling. 

Leo Tolstoy, The First Step 

The sin against compassion reaches its culmination in war with its mad self- 
defeating destruction. From his youth to his last years Tolstoy was fascinated by the 
irrationality of war, by its senseless violence and horror. In many stories and in his 
great novel, War and Peace, he searches for explanations. He maintained that the 
"first step" out of the trap of violence was to stop killing for food. He asserted that 
"as long as we have slaughter houses we will have battle fields." 

Henry Bailey-Stevens, American geographer and writer, saw similar connections. In 
The Recovery of Culture (1949) he wrote: 

As for the future our handling of croplands for animal products at only 
16% efficiency aggravates the problem of world population, which has 
tripled since the time of Malthus, and causes a hidden pressure towards 
war. Man operates two major forms of blood violence, the larger of which 
is the steady day-to-day outflow of the Abattoir. Now with a thermonuclear 
arsenal he is alarmed to see the potential kill of war swell to a comparable 
size. He lives under a continuing balance of terror with bombers constantly 
loaded and in the air. He himself has no place to run or hide. Trapped he 
chases along the fence, desperately seeking some other exit than the 
terrible gate. His wealth of complex language provides no words better to 
fit his plight than does the animal bleat. To any cosmic ear his cry reaches 
stockyard dimensions in volume and tone. The denouement will tell 
whether war has been only an erratic episode in his long evolution or the 
lurid climax of his career. (Bailey-Stevens 1949) 

In his last book Paradesa a dramatic presentation of Man's long history, he brings 
hope that man will realise where he went wrong: 

But war has only been their punishment for what they did to their own 
animal dominion. The cause and the effect are suddenly both obsolete, 
cancel each other out. This hell that they're bemoaning is just the echo of 
the lamentation of the beasts they bred and were supposed to care for. War 
and meat have both gone out of date together. Man hasn't quite caught up 
with that fact, but it's true. (Bailey-Stevens 1975) 


The catching-up is being forced on us as the violence escalates, against the animals 
in the pitiless intensive system, against each other in the wholesale indiscriminate 
slaughter of modern warfare and in the institutional violence of the market system. 

As their powers grew, humans, motivated largely by greed false materialistic values, 
turned their predatory behaviour against the whole planet. Scientists obsessed by 
their own intellectualism, claiming the right to eschew value judgements, often 
denying the reality of anything they couldn't measure, delivered awesome powers 
into the hands of predatory men. The life threatening crises of today are the result. 
Can we meet them? Only if we can change the habits that developed in answer to 
an environmental crisis long ago. Only if we can be guided by the compassion that 
the saints have found at the heart of the universe and in themselves. 

We must look long enough at the horrors before us for them to jerk us out of the ruts 
of age old habits, and then, undeterred by taunts of naivety and idealism, turn to 
create a vision of a new world order. 

Perhaps the greatest need today is hope that there could be a way of managing the 
world's affairs other than that which is leading evermore obviously to disaster. We 
must envisage a way of life that is possible for all the world's people, justice and 
peace require it, and one that is sustainable on a finite and vulnerable planet, the 
survival of life depends on it. Having worked out the physical essentials of life 
styles, very different from those of today's dominant culture, we must go on to 
evolve a different social system. A system in which we are free to grow in spirit 
according to the leadings of the world's great teachers. They all accorded with Lao 

Pity, frugality, refusal to be foremost. 



Physically the new order will depend on the trees and socially on village 
communities functioning with respect, love and mutual service. Richard St Barbe 
Baker wrote of it thus: 

I picture village communities of the future in valleys protected by trees on 
the high ground. They would have fruit and nut orchards, live free from 
disease and enjoy leisure, liberty and justice for all living with a sense of 
oneness with the earth and all living things. The accomplishment of this 
will assure, not only the perpetuation of the forests through intelligent use, 
but also the regeneration of the very spirit of man. (St Barbe Baker 1970) 

The great advantage of the tree based culture is that trees of carefully selected 
species can be grown in most habitable areas of the world to meet human needs 
locally in a sustainable manner. Apart from the enormous saving of the fuel, labour 
and materials that now transport goods backwards and forwards across the world, 
such local resources will facilitate the functioning of self-reliant village 
communities. Such communities will be large enough to provide sufficient reserves 
of human skills and enlightenment for the whole to function smoothly, and small 
enough for each individual member to feel that he or she has an essential part to 
play in the whole, that her or his contribution is valuable and valued. Face to face 
democracy will function, with decisions affecting the village community reached by 

Food will be produced locally in small fields protected by hedges as in St Barbe 
Baker's vision. Within each village each garden will have its trees, especially fruit 
and nut bearing trees. Extensive forest will serve groups of villages. They will be 
large enough for their function as maintainers of environmental health not to be 
damaged by their use for supplies of wood. Trees will be sensitively felled in a 
sustainable yield system, no clear felling. Such trees will provide wood for the 
variety of uses described in the section on tree products. Much of the wood will go 
to the village to be made, by wise and joyful craftsmanship, into articles that will 
last. The rest will be used in the forest industries. Waste wood will be used as fuel 
for the industries and for any heating and lighting in the villages that cannot be 
provided by such means as solar panels and sensitively sited wind or water mills. 

As nearly all food will be produced locally and eaten fresh, the enormous amounts 
of energy and resources now used for processing, packaging and transport will be 
saved. Similar economy will be achieved by goods being made by local craftsmen 
and local industries. 

Nourished by health giving foods, enjoying the security of being members of a 
mutually caring group, with a proper balance of worthwhile labour and creative 


leisure, people will be free of many of the frustrations and fears that, in our present 
culture, erupt into ill health, crime and violence. 

In self reliant autonomous villages the relationship between needs and resources 
will be obvious and, as a result, over-breeding will be recognised as endangering the 
local community and as disturbing the relationship between the individual and the 
group. Such group feeling is one of the strongest forces for checking anti-social 
behaviour. Coupled with the security afforded by a caring group, of special value to 
the old and the very young, it could well keep the village population within 
acceptable limits. 

There will be towns, valued as cultural and educational centres, but as people seek 
creative living, the huge conurbations will become less populous and divide up into 
village communities. 

And what of the relationship between the village and the rest of the world? Attempts 
to impose blueprints are self defeating. A new world order will develop through the 
recognition of the need for unity in diversity. It will evolve according to the same 
principles as inspire the villages: that physical needs must be met in an 
environmentally sustainable manner, that spiritual growth must be nurtured by 
freedom, mutual respect and service, and opportunities for creative expression. 

Freed from the suppressed guilt of the primary exploitation of animals for food, 
spiritual growth will be easier to attain. Modern technology will facilitate worldwide 
communications and the sending of rapid assistance to areas of natural disaster. 

Mahatma Gandhi had a vision of: 

Innumerable self sufficient villages, Gardens of Eden where would dwell 
highly intelligent folk whom none could deceive or exploit. The villages 
would develop in ever widening, never ascending circles. Life will not be a 
pyramid with the apex sustained by the bottom, but an oceanic circle. 

A Vision such as that suggested above is so at variance with present values and 
practices and with dominating social, religious and political institutions that it may 
be regarded as the idle fancy of impractical dreamers. Yet it accords with much of 
the ethos of tribal societies that have flourished for many generations and with the 
teachings of Buddha, Jesus, Gandhi, Lao-Tse and many others. As it becomes ever 
more obvious that the 'practical' men are leading humanity to extinction at an ever 
increasing pace, the 'impractical' visions will come to be recognised as viable and 
desirable alternatives. 

The road of excess leads to the palace of wisdom 

William Blake 
In the palace of Wisdom we learn to love and live aright, making our contribution to 
a better world by positive living. 33 


Although it would be absurd to consider that we shall ourselves effect a 
great change, every moment of our lives can either contribute to the 
transformation of the world or to the deformation being wrecked upon it by 
the three poisons. In this context to do nothing is to do something, and 
quite possibly the wrong thing. So act we must, and if we do it properly and 
intelligently we may hope to serve the ultimate goal. 

So writes Adam Curie in Tools for Transformation (Curie 1990). He identified the 
three poisons as ignorance of our essential nature, greed by which we attempt to 
compensate for the ensuing deprivation, and fear of losing those compensations, 
with hatred towards those that make us afraid. These poisons cloud our minds, 
stultify our actions, and, multiplied, lead to tyranny, famine and war. 

Adam Curie writes, not from the refuge of academic institutions, although he has 
held chairs at several universities, but from a long life of service as a mediator in 
some of the most deprived and violent areas of the world. He achieves his positive 
and balanced philosophy because he manages to see through the cloud of illusions 
to the essential nature of the people with whom he has to deal. He made friends with 
some of the most hardened and corrupt of his fellows, dictators, tyrants, guerilla 
leaders, torturers, and exploiters of many kinds. 

What we need to realise is that people we blame for the critical state of the world 
are products of the society that we have helped to make, the continuance of which 
we support by our actions and by our failure to act. Responsibility for change lies 
with each one of us. Politicians and tyrants alike cannot keep their power 
indefinitely contrary to the will of the people over whom they rule. The 
moneymaking, the profiteering, which is the chief instrument of destruction and 
domination in the world today, depends on what people buy. Amazing changes have 
been achieved during the last decade by the assertion of people power and the 
growing discrimination of shoppers. Small though they have been in comparison 
with what is necessary to save the world, they offer encouragement to all of us. 
What we do may seem ridiculously insignificant but it all adds up, negatively or 
positively. The contribution we make to positive compassionate living can make a 
difference to a future for the planet and to the significance of our own living in the 
here and now. 

It has been calculated (Earth Repair Foundation Leaflet) that over two thousand 
million people would know an idea from two people if they each told one other 
person every day for thirty days and each person they told did the same for the rest 
of the thirty days. But we must do more than just tell people. We need to be able to 
do so persuasively and back up what we say with factual knowledge, reason and 


action. We must read, listen, learn and discuss with minds always open to new truth 
and with willingness to alter our lives accordingly. Today we are constantly 
bombarded with information from radio, television, meetings and the unending 
stream of print. It is not always easy to discriminate between that which will help us 
to serve life and that which will diminish our contribution. For example we need to 
have knowledge of the abuses against humans and animals practiced worldwide, but 
too much attention to this can sap our will to action or can arouse in us the very 
emotions that give rise to such abuses. Then we act negatively and give the vicious 
wheel a further turn. We must keep our faith in human potential for good and there 
is plenty of evidence for this all around us, enough to outbalance the evil. 

Most importantly we must change our own life styles in accordance with the 
enlightenment we seek to spread. The degree to which we can do this will vary 
according to individual situations, strengths and weaknesses. Let no one presume to 
dictate to another, some degree of compromise is unavoidable for all. If we are 
honest with ourselves about this, it will help us to achieve the essential humility and 
make for progress. Self-righteousness and denunciatory attitudes must be avoided. 

There are green groups of various shades springing up all over the place, like the 
grass between the paving stones in spring. They can help us and we can help them. 
Each will make a contribution in so far as they serve compassion and bring freedom 
from consumerism and money worship. 

One of the most important areas in which to be active is that concerning the world's 
forests: the saving of the tropical forests is a most urgent necessity. Their destruction 
is causing great suffering to indigenous people and animals. The effect on the world 
climate could be catastrophic. 

We need to conserve existing forests in temperate regions too, that is mixed forests, 
not the dreary monoculture of conifers that have done so much harm to the areas in 
which they are planted, and to people's attitude to forests. Thankfully there are 
encouraging moves in this direction. Individuals can do much to further them and to 
protect trees in their own area. Protection orders can be obtained on specific trees 
but they can be easily overridden unless local people are constantly vigilant. 
Thirteen beautiful mature trees in Stroud were to be felled to serve a misguided 
traffic scheme. They were saved by a tremendous and effectively organised effort by 
local residents who physically guarded them through 24 hours, days on end, 
hugging them when the men came to fell them. Wide publicity was gained that 
served not only to save the trees, but to heighten awareness of the importance of 
trees in general. Growth in this awareness is one of the most encouraging features in 
the world today, but not sufficient is being done TO LINK ALL THE VARIED 
draw attention to this is the purpose of this booklet. Its central message is that 


priority in the use of the basic resources of land and water must be given to tree 
growing because trees give materials to meet nearly all human needs and at the 
same time sustain water and soil resources and can check global warming and ozone 
layer depletion and reclaim deserts. 

In so far as land and water are used, it should be with the maximum possible 
economy and minimum destructive effect on environment and people and animals. 
We must seek to order our lifestyles accordingly. 

The power of the purse is great in our society. In our purchases we should try to 
avoid everything that is a product of human, animal and environmental degradation. 
If we turn the searchlight of truth on to this area we will be astounded to find that 
there is hardly anything on the supermarket shelves or on the shelves of other shops 
that would meet the criterion! We all have to compromise but knowingly and only to 
the degree imposed by necessity - necessity for what? Necessity to enable us to 
make the greatest contribution that we can to saving and forwarding life on this 

As far as food is concerned, only the few people that grow all their own by vegan- 
organic methods, incorporating trees into their projects as well as arable crops, 
approach the criterion. We should do all we can to encourage and help them and to 
follow their lead. It is amazing how much food can be grown in well planned and 
worked gardens - see Robert Hart's Forest Gardens (1990). Flower borders also can 
grow interesting and beautiful edible plants. People with gardens they cannot work 
might find people with no gardens anxious to produce health-promoting foods 
(difficulties in personal relationships can arise here but positively overcome can lead 
to spiritual growth). Allotments can be the means of growing health promoting food 
and at the same time spreading the knowledge that artificial fertilizers, pesticides 
and animal products are not necessary for good yields. 

A surprising number of plants can be gown on windowsills. Three glass jars can 
give a regular supply of alfalfa sprouts, excellent source of salad material. Tomatoes 
can be grown in pots to give an all year round supply. Parsley and fragrant herbs that 
add vitamins, minerals and interest can also be grown on windowsills. 

In areas besides those concerned with food, we can make a contribution to 
sustainable living. Buying only those articles we really need conserves precious 
resources, and as far as factory produced articles are concerned, lessens pollution. 
Many journeys are unnecessary, tourism is coming to be regarded as 
environmentally destructive and geared to money worship. 

What we can do may seem very small in view of the huge challenge that confronts 
us but "he was never more wrong who did nothing because he could do only a 


little." The millions of very poor, in rich as well as poor countries, have little room 
for manoeuvre. The responsibility for change lies with the more affluent, especially 
those of the industrially developed nations who are spreading wasteful and 
destructive ideas and practices worldwide. One of the worst crimes has been the 
spreading of what Barbara Ward called "The revolution of rising expectations", 
expectations that cannot be realised with exploding populations in a finite and 
fragile planet. It is hard to persuade others that the health of the environment must 
be given priority unless we give a lead by voluntary simplifying our lifestyles. 

Voluntary simplification of life style, undertaken for the good of all and for a future 
for the planet, does not bring a sense of deprivation but a sense of more significant 
and truly abundant living. It can free us from the shackles of money worship. Truly 
abundant living for the human animal means growing in spirit and in truth. It can 
only be achieved from the springboard of compassion for all that feels. 

Reason and Compassion 

Humans differ from other animals in their reasoning powers that have developed 
through language and mathematics to give them awesome powers over the physical 
world. Such powers, if they continue to be wrongly used, could destroy most life on 
Earth. With reason and language there also evolved self-consciousness and hence 
awareness of others as creatures with feelings and experiences. This constituted a 
change of momentous importance. Henceforth a creature had the power to direct its 
own evolution, if it could summon the creative faith and will. 

Consciousness of the feelings of others combined with the instinctive compulsion of 
animals to sacrifice themselves for their young, resulted in the development of 
compassion - another hallmark of the human animal. 

At present these two distinctive features of humanity, reasoning power and 
compassion function at variance with each other. Hence the horrendous assault on 
life and the earth's life support system in war and misguided development. 

Although all humans have the facility of imaginative compassion - it is a 
distinguishing feature of the species - in all, to varying degrees, its expression is 
spasmodic and irrational. It has been distorted by deprivation and negative human 
relationships, by ignorance and the imposition of misinformation. As a result only 
the few recognise compassion as the most important power in the world, the only 
force that can create a future for life, for our children. 

Most people have been taught that compassion has to be controlled, that, in order to 
live in the "real world", sensitivity has to be confined largely to a fantasy world of 
poetry, art, and music. In order to feed their bodies humans have to exploit and 
slaughter animals that, if they gave reign to compassion, they would know had 


feelings similar to their own. This most humans would find difficult to do. Someone 
has to do the slaughtering so those who indulge in "sentimentalism" are regarded as 
dependent on the violence of others. This attitude is no longer supportable because 
after forty years of health promoting compassionate eating, vegans have taken all 
reason of necessity from animal exploitation and slaughter. They have vindicated 
compassion in the most basic area of life. 

Now it needs to be vindicated in the area of human relationships, in community, 
worldwide. Here at present the same lack of connection between reason and 
compassion triumphs. People pay lip service to the power of love but only the few 
have the faith to try living by it. Most believe in punishing others, people like 
themselves, who have lost faith in positive life and love. In time the poisons of hate 
filled living erupt into war. Irrationally the poor victims of some tyrant have to be 
mass slaughtered. The tyrant is denounced as villainous, his actions are, but as a 
person he is but another misguided creature who has lost his way in the jungle of 

War and the slaughter of animals for food, have much in common. Now as the mass 
slaughter and violence escalates in both areas, it is becoming obvious that humanity 
is set on a suicidal course. Most of our intellectual power is used to speed the road 
to oblivion. 

The horror of what ever more obviously lies before us may wake us from the 
nightmare of carnivorous living. It is becoming clear that the age of predatory man 
is coming to an end. Will it end in disaster or will we awaken in time and unite our 
reason and compassion to promote a leap in the development of the human psyche? 
Collectively what is required is that our intellect be used as the tool of our 
compassion to forward a world order that will provide the conditions for abundant 
living for all. Individually, it depends on how far each of us can serve that creative 
spirit which the masters through the ages have taught is akin to the love in our own 

In so far as we do so, we will find the courage to make our way through the time of 
troubles that lies ahead - and to find joy and fulfilment making our contribution to 
the creation of an evolutionary break through. 



We are faced with the challenge of providing for the needs of a rapidly increasing 
world population from the diminishing resources of a finite and endangered planet. 
Fundamental changes in the values and practices of the dominant world system, 
which has created a situation in which millions of people and animals already suffer 
extreme deprivation and die prematurely, is essential. 

What is needed is a trend towards compassionate living the vegan way, with the 
emphasis on the use of trees and their products. By growing enough trees, we can 
satisfy nearly every human need, including that for food, and at the same time do 
much to restore and maintain planetary health. This fact is well substantiated but not 
taken nearly enough into account. Enough land will be available for the trees if 
animal farming is phased out. 

Animals meet no human needs that cannot be met more economically direct from 
plants, especially trees. At present the second population explosion of deliberately 
bred animals competes with humans for diminishing resources and adds to 
desertification, erosion, pollution, global warming and ozone layer depletion. 
Animal farming imposes suffering on highly sentient creatures. 

What is needed is an evolutionary leap in the development of the human psyche so 
that awesome intellectual powers can be used consistently according to the 
compassion taught by the founders of the great religions and philosophies, but only 
very inadequately practiced by their followers. Veganism which brings freedom 
from dependence on the cruel exploitation and slaughter of highly sentient creatures 
is the essential foundation of compassionate living. 

As people face the challenge of the environmental crises, as the supreme importance 
of using awesome intellectual powers with compassion for all sentient beings is 
realised, an evolutionary leap will be achieved. An era of truly abundant living will 
dawn in which humans, at peace with themselves, with each other and with all 
living creatures, will reach heights of creativity as yet unimagined. 

Kathleen Jannaway, March 1991 


Booklist and References 

ALLEN, 1980 How to Save the World 

BAILEY-STEVENS H. 1949 The Recovery of Culture Harper & Brothers 

BAILEY-STEVENS 1975 Paradesa Los Angeles, Vegetarian World 

BOYLE S. & ARDILL J. 1989 The Greenhouse Effect London, Hodder & 


BRAND Dr. 1989 in Adelaide Advertiser 27.6.89 

BROWN L. 1990 The State of the World 1990 World Watch Institute 

BRUNDTLAND 1987 Our Common Future Oxford U.P. 

CHERFAS J. 'Nuts in the Desert' New Scientist 8.10.87 p. 46 

CURLE A. 1990 Tools For Transformation Hawthorn 

EMSLEY 1. 1987 'Plant a Tree for Chemistry' New Scientist 8.10.87 


FORD HERITAGE 1971 Facts and Composition of Food Health Research, 


GANDHI Maneka 1990 'Save Trees, Don't Eat Meat' The Illustrated Weekly of 

India, 11.11.90 

GLESINGER E. 1950 The Coming Age of Wood Seeker & Warburg 

GOLDEMBURG et-al 1988 Energy for a Sustainable World Wiley 

HART R. & DOUGLAS S. 1976 Forest Farming Watkins 

HART R. 1991 Forest Garden Institute of Social Inventions 

ICKIE D. 1990 It Doesn't Have to be Like This Greenprint 

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) New Scientist 22.10.90, 

3.11.90, 17.11.90 

LANGLEY G. 1988 Survey of Research Vegan Society 

LOVELOCK J. 1990 'Stand Up for Gaia' in Button J. (ed.) The Green Fuse; The 

Schumacher Lectures 1983-8, London, Quartet 

MADELY J. 1984 New Scientist 2.8.84 

MARLAND G. 1988 New Scientist 17.8.88 

McCULLY P. 1989 The Ecologist Nov-Dec 

PAIN J. Another Kind of Garden 

ROWLAND & BLAKE 1988 New Scientist 23.4.88 

StBARBE BAKER R. 1966 Sahara Conquest Lutterworth 

StBARBE BAKER R. 1970 My Life; My Trees Lutterworth 

SMITH A.J. 1981 'Draught Animals' in Spedding ed. Vegetable Productivity 


TOLSTOY L. 'The First Step' in Essays and Letters 

WYNNE-TYSON I. 1988 'Food for a Future' Thorsons 

YATES G. 1986 Food: Need Greed and Myopia Earthright 

Information about leaf curd can be obtained from Vegfam, Cwm Cottage, 

Cwmynys, Cilycwm, Llandovery, Carmarthenshire SA20 0EU 



In addition to the recipe books shown in the front cover. 


Facts and arguments supporting the return of the vast areas now given to 
animal farming to the forests that have been cleared through the ages. 


Advice on growing food sustainably and compassionately, using vegan- 
organic methods, free from artificial chemicals & slaughterhouse residues. 


With charts and pictures that can be enlarged for use as posters. 






Inspirational writings from Adele Curtis, John Woolman, Gandhi, Tom 
Regan, Robert Hart, Richard St Barbe Baker and others. 

Please add 50p per booklet for p&p. 1/3 bulk discount for stalls & shops. 


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Bulk supplies available for careful distribution at stalls, exhibitions, talks etc 

• General distribution flier • Introducing MCL 

• Food and Agriculture - it's time for a change! 
• Protecting the Environment • Trees for a Future 

• Feeding the World • Animal Exploitation 

• Health, Diet and Nutrition 

• A Vision for a Compassionate World 

From MCL, c/o Veggies, 245 Gladstone St., Nottingham, NG7 6HX 


Quarterly Magazine 



To spread awareness of the factors that will achieve a sustainable life-style, free 

from destructive exploitation of animals, people and the earth. 
To inspire necessary action. 
To give help with daily living 

with articles giving essential background knowledge, promoting educational 
campaigns, drawing inspiration from great teachers and pioneers, giving news of 
encouraging developments. 

Recipes using home-grown products, practical hints and pages for the family. 

Recycled paper, clear type, produced entirely by voluntary work. 

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ENVELOPE STICKERS with the message: 

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necessities if we use land for trees that absorb C02 not for livestock that emit 

methane a much more powerful green house gas. 

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